Phonemes are the building blocks of words; the sounds. We blend them together to read and segment / separate them to spell.
In Reception, children follow the Government strategy 'Letters and Sounds' Phases 2-4 alongside Jolly Phonics songs and actions for a multi-sensory approach.
(See the Reception class page for links to these songs.)
In Year 1, children revise Letters and Sounds Phases 3 and 4, then learn Phase 5. Phase 5 includes the alternative pronunciations and spellings of previously learnt sounds.
At the end of Year 1 children demonstrate their phonics knowledge through the National Year 1 Phonics Screening Check.
Reception and Year 1 children bring home a 'decodable' reading book, which means their can apply their phonics knowledge to each word, to sound it out to read.